Pope Francis (Latin: Franciscus; Italian: Francesco;
Spanish: Francisco; born Jorge Mario Bergoglio,
17 December 1936) is the 266th and current Pope of the Roman Catholic Church, a title he holds ex
officio as Bishop of Rome, and Sovereign of the Vatican City. Born in Buenos Aires, Argentina, Bergoglio worked
briefly as a chemical technologist and nightclub bouncer before beginning
seminary studies. He was ordained a Catholic priest in 1969 and from 1973 to 1979 was Argentina's
provincial superior of the Society of Jesus. He was accused of handing two priests to the National Reorganization Process
during the Dirty War, but the lawsuit was ultimately dismissed. He became the Archbishop of Buenos
Aires in 1998 and was created a cardinal in 2001 by Pope John Paul II. He led the Argentine Church during the December
2001 riots in Argentina, and the administrations of Néstor Kirchner and Cristina Fernández de Kirchner considered
him a political rival. Following the resignation of Pope Benedict XVI on 28 February 2013, a papal conclave elected Bergoglio
as his successor on 13 March. He chose Francis as his papal name in honor of Saint Francis of Assisi.
Francis is the first Jesuit pope, the first from the Americas, the first from the Southern
Hemisphere and the first non-European pope since the Syrian Gregory III in 741.
his public life, Pope Francis has been noted for his humility, emphasis on God's mercy, concern for the poor, and commitment
to interfaith dialogue. He is attributed to having a humble, less formal approach to the papacy than his predecessors, for
instance choosing to reside in the Domus Sanctae Marthae guesthouse rather than in the papal apartments
of the Apostolic Palace used by his predecessors. In addition, due to both his Jesuit and Ignatian
aesthetic, he is known for favoring simpler vestments void of ornamentation, including refusing the traditional papal
mozzetta cape upon his election, choosing silver instead of gold for his piscatory ring,
and keeping the same pectoral cross he had as Cardinal. He maintains that the church should be more open and welcoming. He
does not support unbridled capitalism, Marxism, or Marxist versions of liberation theology. Francis maintains the traditional
views of the church regarding abortion, euthanasia, contraception, homosexuality, ordination of women, and priestly celibacy.
He opposes global warming, consumerism, and irresponsible development, a focus of his papacy with the promulgation of Laudato
si'. In international diplomacy, he helped to restore full diplomatic relations between the
U.S. and Cuba.
Jorge Mario Bergoglio was born on 17 December 1936 in Flores
a neighborhood of Buenos Aires. He was the eldest of five children
of Mario José Bergoglio and Regina María Sívori. Mario Bergoglio was an Italian
immigrant accountant born in Portacomaro (Province of Asti)
in Italy's Piedmont region. Regina Sívori was a housewife born
in Buenos Aires to a family of northern Italian (Piedmontese-Genoese) origin. Mario José's
family left Italy in 1929, to escape the fascist regime of Benito Mussolini.
María Elena Bergoglio, the Pope's only living sibling, confirmed that their emigration was not for economic reasons. His other siblings were Alberto Horacio, Oscar Adrián and Marta
Regina. Two great-nephews, Antonio and Joseph, died in a traffic collision.
In the sixth grade, Bergoglio
attended Wilfrid Barón de los Santos Ángeles, a school of the Salesians of Don Bosco, in Ramos Mejía,
Buenos Aires. He attended the technical secondary school Escuela Técnica Industrial N° 27 Hipólito Yrigoyen, named after a past President of Argentina, and graduated with a chemical
technician's diploma. He
worked for a few years in that capacity in the foods section at Hickethier-Bachmann Laboratory
where his boss was Esther Ballestrino. Before joining the Jesuits, Bergoglio worked as a bar bouncer and as a janitor sweeping
floors, and he also ran tests in a chemical laboratory.
In the only known health crisis of his youth, at the age of 21 he suffered from life-threatening pneumonia and three cysts.
He had part of a lung excised shortly afterwards.
Bergoglio has been a lifelong supporter of San Lorenzo de Almagro football club.
Bergoglio is also a fan of the films of Tita Merello, neorealism, and
tango dancing, with an "intense fondness" for the traditional music of Argentina and Uruguay known as the milonga.
Pre-papal career, 1958–2013Bergoglio found his vocation to the priesthood while he was on his way to celebrate
the Spring Day. He passed by a church to go to confession, and was inspired by the priest. Bergoglio studied at the archdiocesan seminary, Inmaculada Concepción
Seminary, in Villa Devoto, Buenos Aires, and, after three years, entered the Society of Jesus as a novice on 11 March 1958. Bergoglio has said that, as a young seminarian, he had a crush on a girl
he met and briefly doubted about continuing the religious career. As
a Jesuit novice he studied humanities in Santiago, Chile. At the conclusion
of his novitiate in the Society of Jesus, Bergoglio officially became a Jesuit on 12 March 1960, when he made the religious
profession of the initial, perpetual vows of poverty, chastity and obedience of a member of the order.
In 1960, Bergoglio obtained a licentiate in philosophy
from the Colegio Máximo de San José in San Miguel, Buenos Aires Province. He taught literature and psychology
at the Colegio de la Inmaculada Concepción, a high school in Santa Fe, from 1964 to 1965.
In 1966 he taught the same courses at the Colegio del Salvador in Buenos Aires.
In 1967, Bergoglio finished his theological studies and was ordained to the priesthood on
13 December 1969, by Archbishop Ramón José Castellano. He attended the Facultades de Filosofía y Teología
de San Miguel (Philosophical and Theological Faculty of San Miguel), a seminary in San Miguel. He served as the master of
novices for the province there and became a professor of theology.
Bergoglio completed his final
stage of spiritual training as a Jesuit, tertianship, at Alcalá de Henares, Spain. He took the final fourth vow (obedience
to the pope) in the Society of Jesus on 22 April 1973. He was named
provincial superior of the Society of Jesus in Argentina on 31 July 1973 and served until 1979.
He made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem in 1973, shortly after being named provincial superior, but his stay was shortened by
the outbreak of the Yom Kippur War. After the completion of his term
of office, in 1980 he was named the rector of the Philosophical and Theological Faculty of
San Miguel in San Miguel. Before taking up this new appointment, he
spent the first three months of 1980 in Ireland to learn English, staying at the Jesuit Centre at the Milltown Institute
of Theology and Philosophy, Dublin. After returning to Argentina to
take up his new post at San Miguel, Father Bergoglio served in that capacity until 1986. He was removed as rector by the
Jesuit superior-general Peter Hans Kolvenbach because Bergoglio's policy of educating the young Jesuits in direct pastoral
work and in popular religiosity was opposed to the world-wide trend in the Society of Jesus of emphasizing social justice
based on sociological analysis, especially promoted by the Centro de Investigaciones y Accion Social (CIAS).
He spent several months at the
Sankt Georgen Graduate School of Philosophy and Theology in Frankfurt, Germany, while considering possible dissertation
topics, before returning to Argentina to serve as a confessor and spiritual director to the Jesuit community in Córdoba. In
Germany, he saw the painting Mary Untier of Knots in Augsburg and brought a copy of the painting to Argentina where
it has become an important Marian devotion.
As a student at the Salesian school, Bergoglio was mentored by Ukrainian Greek Catholic priest
Stefan Czmil. Bergoglio often rose hours before his classmates to serve Mass for Czmil. Because of continued
tensions with leaders and scholars connected with the Centro de Investigaciones y Accion Social (CIAS), a sense of Bergoglio's
"dissent", and his work as auxiliary bishop of Buenos Aires, he was asked in 1992 by Jesuit authorities not to
reside in Jesuit houses. From then on, he did not visit Jesuit houses until after his election as
was named Auxiliary Bishop of Buenos Aires in 1992 and ordained on 27 June 1992 as Titular Bishop of Auca,
with Cardinal Antonio Quarracino, Archbishop of Buenos Aires, serving as principal consecrator.
He chose as his episcopal motto Miserando atque eligendo. It is drawn from
Saint Bede's homily on Matthew 9:9–13: "because he saw him through the eyes of
mercy and chose him". On 3 June 1997, Bergoglio was appointed Coadjutor Archbishop of Buenos Aires with
right of automatic succession. Upon Quarracino's death on 28 February 1998, Bergoglio became Metropolitan Archbishop of
Buenos Aires. In that role, Bergoglio created new parishes and restructured the archdiocese administrative offices, led pro-life
initiatives, and created a commission on divorces. One of Bergoglio's
major initiatives as archbishop was to increase the Church's presence in the slums of Buenos Aires. Under his leadership,
the number of priests assigned to work in the slums doubled. This
work led to him being called the "Slum Bishop".
Early in his time as Archbishop of Buenos Aires, Bergoglio sold off the archdiocese's
shares in multiple banks and turned its accounts into those of a normal customer in international banks. The shares in banks
had led the local church to a high leniency towards high spending, and the archdiocese was nearing bankruptcy as a result.
As a normal customer of the bank, the church was forced into a higher fiscal discipline. On 6 November 1998, while remaining Archbishop of Buenos Aires, he was named ordinary
for those Eastern Catholics in Argentina who lacked a prelate of their own rite.
Archbishop Sviatoslav Shevchuk has said that Bergoglio understands the liturgy, rites, and spirituality of his Greek Catholic
Church and always "took care of our Church in Argentina" as ordinary for Eastern Catholics during his time as
Archbishop of Buenos Aires.
In 2000, Bergoglio was the only church official to reconcile with Jerónimo Podestá, a former bishop
who had been suspended as a priest after opposing the Argentine Revolution military dictatorship in 1972. He defended Podestá's
wife from Vatican attacks on their marriage. That same year, Bergoglio said the Argentine Catholic Church needed "to
put on garments of public penance for the sins committed during the years of the dictatorship" in the 1970s, during
the Dirty War. Bergoglio
made it his custom to celebrate the Holy Thursday ritual washing of feet in places such as jails, hospitals, retirement homes
or slums. In 2007, just two days after Benedict XVI issued new rules
for using the liturgical forms that preceded the Second Vatican Council, Cardinal Bergoglio was one of the first bishops in
the world to respond by instituting a Tridentine Mass in Buenos Aires.
It was celebrated weekly.
On 8 November 2005, Bergoglio was elected president of the Argentine Episcopal
Conference for a three-year term (2005–08) He was
reelected to another three-year term on 11 November 2008. He remained
a member of that Commission's permanent governing body, president of its committee for the Pontifical Catholic University
of Argentina, and a member of its liturgy committee for the care of shrines.
While head of the Argentine Catholic bishops' conference, Bergoglio issued a collective apology for his church's failure
to protect people from the Junta during the Dirty War. When he turned
75 in December 2011, Bergoglio submitted his resignation as Archbishop of Buenos Aires to Pope Benedict XVI as required by
canon law. Still, as he had no coadjutor archbishop, he stayed in office,
waiting for an eventual replacement appointed by the Vatican.
the consistory of 21 February 2001, Archbishop Bergoglio was created a cardinal by Pope John Paul II with the title of cardinal-priest of San Roberto Bellarmino, a church served by Jesuits and named for one. When
he traveled to Rome for the ceremony, he and his sister María Elena visited the village in northern Italy where their
father was born. As cardinal, Bergoglio was appointed to five administrative
positions in the Roman Curia. He was a member of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments,
the Congregation for the Clergy, the Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life, the
Pontifical Council for the Family and the Commission for Latin America. Later that year, when Cardinal Edward Egan returned
to New York following the September 11 attacks, Bergoglio replaced him as relator (recording secretary) in the Synod of Bishops, and, according to the Catholic Herald,
created "a favourable impression as a man open to communion and dialogue".
became known for personal humility, doctrinal conservatism, and a commitment to social justice.
A simple lifestyle contributed to his reputation for humility. He lived in a small apartment, rather than in the elegant
bishop's residence in the suburb of Olivos. He took public transportation and cooked his
own meals. He limited his time in Rome to "lightning visits". He was known to be devoted to St. Therese of Lisieux, and he enclosed a
small picture of her in the letters he wrote, calling her "a great missionary saint".
After Pope John Paul II died
on 2 April 2005, Bergoglio attended his funeral and was considered one of the papabile for succession to the papacy. He participated as a cardinal elector in the 2005 papal conclave that elected
Pope Benedict XVI. In the National Catholic Reporter, John L. Allen, Jr. reported that Bergoglio was a frontrunner
in the 2005 conclave.
In September 2005, the Italian magazine Limes published claims that Bergoglio had been the runner-up and main challenger
to Cardinal Ratzinger at that conclave and that he had received 40 votes in the third ballot, but fell back to 26 at the
fourth and decisive ballot.
The claims were based on a diary purportedly belonging to an anonymous cardinal who had been present at the conclave. According to the
Italian journalist Andrea Tornielli, this number of votes had no precedent for a Latin American papabile. La Stampa reported that Bergoglio was in close contention with
Ratzinger during the election, until he made an emotional plea that the cardinals should not vote for him.
According to Tornielli, Bergoglio made this request to prevent the conclave from delaying too much in the election of a pope.
As a cardinal, Bergoglio was associated with Communion and Liberation, a Catholic evangelical
lay movement of the type known as associations of the faithful. He sometimes made appearances at the annual gathering known as the Rimini
Meeting held during the late summer months in Italy. In 2005, Cardinal
Bergoglio authorized the request for beatification—the first step towards sainthood—for six members of the Pallottine
community murdered in the San Patricio Church massacre.
At the same time, Bergoglio ordered an investigation into the murders themselves, which had been widely blamed on the National
Reorganization Process, the military regime that ruled Argentina at the time.
Elected at the age of 76, Francis was reported
to be healthy and his doctors have stated that his missing lung tissue, removed in his youth, does not have a significant
impact on his health. The only concern would be decreased respiratory
reserve if he had a respiratory infection. In the past, one attack
of sciatica in 2007 prevented him from attending a consistory and delayed his return to Argentina for several days.
Francis is the first Jesuit pope. This was an unexpected appointment, because of
the tense relations between the Society of Jesus and the Holy See.
He is also the first from the Americas, and the first from the Southern
Hemisphere. Many media reported him as being the first non-European pope, but he is actually the 11th. The previous one was
from Syria, Gregory III in 741; 1,272 years earlier. However, although Francis does not have a European nationality, he has
a European ethnicity.
As pope, his manner
is less formal than that of his predecessors: a style that news coverage has referred to as "no frills," noting
that it is "his common touch and accessibility that is proving the greatest inspiration."
On the night of his election, he took the bus back to his hotel with the cardinals, rather than be driven in the papal car. The next day, he visited Cardinal Jorge María Mejía in the
hospital and chatted with patients and staff. At his first media audience,
the Friday after his election, the Pope said of Saint Francis of Assisi: "The man who gives us this spirit of peace,
the poor man", and he added "[h]ow I would like a poor Church, and for the poor".
In addition to his native Spanish, Francis is also conversant in Latin (the official
language of the Holy See), he speaks fluent Italian, (the official language of Vatican City and the "everyday language"
of the Holy See) German, French,
Portuguese, English, and he understands the Piedmontese language and some Genoese. Francis chose not to live in the official papal residence
in the Apostolic Palace, but to remain in the Vatican guest house, in a suite in which he can receive visitors and hold meetings.
He is the first pope since Pope Pius X to live outside the papal apartments.
Francis still appears at the window of the Apostolic Palace for the Sunday Angelus.
Bergoglio was elected pope on 13 March 2013, the second day of the 2013 papal conclave, taking the papal name Francis. Francis was elected on the fifth ballot of the conclave
The Habemus Papam was delivered by Cardinal protodeacon Jean-Louis Tauran.
Cardinal Christoph Schönborn later said that Bergoglio was elected following two supernatural
signs, one in the conclave and hence confidential, and a Latin-American couple of friends of Schönborn who whispered
Bergoglio's name in Schönborn's ear; Schönborn commented "if these people say Bergoglio, that's an indication
of the Holy Spirit".
Instead of accepting his cardinals' congratulations while
seated on the Papal throne, Francis received them standing, reportedly an immediate sign
of a changing approach to formalities at the Vatican. During his first
appearance as pontiff on the balcony of Saint Peter's Basilica, he wore a white cassock,
not the red, ermine-trimmed mozzetta
used by the previous Popes. He also wore the same iron pectoral cross
that he had worn as Archbishop of Buenos Aires, rather than the gold one worn by his predecessors.
After being elected and choosing
his name, his first act was bestowing the Urbi et Orbi blessing to thousands of pilgrims gathered in St. Peter's
Square. Before blessing the crowd, he asked those in St. Peter's Square to pray for his predecessor, Pope Emeritus Benedict
XVI, and for himself.
Pope Francis held his Papal inauguration on 19 March 2013 in St. Peter's Square in the Vatican. He celebrated Mass in the
presence of various political and religious leaders from around the world.
In his homily Pope Francis focused on the Solemnity of Saint Joseph, the liturgical day on
which the Mass was celebrated.